earliest exponents of Bharatanatyam were the devadasis (temple dancers) in south
India for worship. It came to be patronized by the Cholas, the Pandyas, Nayakas,
Vijayanagar rulers and the Marathas. The technique of Bharatanatyam consists of
64 principles of coordinated hand, foot, face and body movements which are
performed to the accompaniment of dance syllables, popularly known as bols.
Its format consists of Alarippu (invocation), Jathi Swaram
(note combinations), Shabdam (notes and lyrics), Varnam (a combination of pure
dance and abhinaya), lighter items like Padams and Javalis (all erotic) and
finally the Thillana (again pure dance).
Saraswathi, Shanta Rao, Mrinalini Sarabahai, Yamini Krishnamurthy, Kamala,
Vijayantimala, Sonal Man Singh, Samyukta Panigrahi and Rukhmini Devi.
word Kathak is derived from Katha which means story. It is a dance-drama in
which actors took part.
It is confined mostly to Northern India—Uttar Pradesh,
Rajasthan, the Punjab and Madhya Pradesh. The main centres are Lucknow,
Varanasi, Jaipur and Delhi.
The characteristic features of the Kathak dance are emphasis
on foot work, the swift swirl or chakor of the body followed by its sudden
stillness. The execution of foot work is with in a time cycle.
The Kathak dance goes through a regular format mostly
concentrating on rhythm, variously called tatkar, paltas, thoras, amad and
Sitara Devi, Birju Maharaj, Gopi Krishna, Binda Din Maharaj,
Damayanti Joshi, Kalkadin, Aachan Maharaj and Uma Sharma.
combines music, poetry, mime and drama. This dance-drama is usually performed in
the open and usually lasts the whole night. The themes are taken from the
Ramayana, the Mahabharata and Hindu mythology. The costumes show a great variety
of colour. The musical instruments are quite simple, viz., drums and cymbals.
The actors put on masks of various types to represent deities or the demons.